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The series: Do not forget!
GENOCID IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
Autor: Emir Ramić
Objavljeno: 23. May 2012. 03:05:31
Series prepared by Professor Emir Ramic, Director of the Institute for Research of Genocide Canada

On the occasion of twenty years from the aggression against the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and genocide against its citizens, the Institute for Research of Genocide Canada prepared series under the name “Do not forget”.
The series was based on the verdicts of the International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia, the International Court of Justice, European Court of Human Rights and more national courts.
In preparing the series were used the results of scientific research of the Institute for Research of Crimes against Humanity and International Law, University of Sarajevo, and results of scientific research of several scientific and research institutions in the world.
Part of this series will be set up as a permanent exhibition at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights.
Genocide against Bosniaks was committed in the period between 1922 and 1995 in all the occupied places in Bosnia and Herzegovina and towns under siege. Only several municipalities shall be mentioned here in which the genocide was committed. These are the drastic illustrations of municipalities – areas and places in which the genocide was committed.


Series 1

Introduction:

Emir RAMIĆ: The aggression against the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and genocide against Bosniacs make the essence of joint criminal enterprise conducted by the states of FRY (Serbia and Montenegro) and the Republic of Croatia, their leadership, and numerous top representatives of their respective political, military, police and administration, as well as their fifth column, collaborationists and mercenaries;
Genocid in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Numerous relevant sources of different provenance reliably suggest the two initial and basic, essential fundamental assumptions and provisions for the contemporary events and episodes in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina at the end of XX century:

- First, a classic armed aggression was conducted against the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, that is, it was crime against peace and safety of mankind which is according to the basic understanding and definition an international armed conflict and

- Second, the gravest crime – crime of genocide was committed in the occupied territory of the independent and universally recognized Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a member of the United Nations, as well as towns under siege, and against Bosniacs.

These are the crimes, created on the foundations of the fascist ideology, two genocidal policies, two great-state projects, two joint criminal enterprise, two nationalistic movements, two aggressive and genocidal strategies, two states, than two or better to say three collaborationist and fifth column creations, two foreign armies, four collaborationist military formations, and several other armed units and groups, including the foreign mercenaries (Russians, Greeks, and others). Such fascist ideology, policy and practice of genocidal character had one objective – formation of great-Serbian and great-Croatian states on the account of independent and sovereign, historically permanent and clearly defined state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The objective of these ideologies, policies, and practices was the conquering war for territories, “living space”, occupying somebody else’s, Bosnia and Herzegovina territory.

Considering previously mentioned basic assumptions, it is necessary, for the purpose of historic truth, to remind of the relevant facts determined based on the original and relevant documentation:

- Serbian Nazism again – during the last decade of the 20th century – generated the gravest crimes known to the mankind;

- Serbian nationalistic elite (political, intellectual, and clerical), in accordance with the great Serbian project of great Serbia (“all Serbs in one state”), during the last decade of the 20th century, caused an internal crisis in SFRY and destroyed the common state;

- The Milošević’s nationalistic politics and practice of mass meetings and coup methods dismissed in Serbia, Kosovo, Vojvodina, and Montenegro the legally elected leaderships and removed unwanted personnel;

- The Republic of Serbia, by the 28 September 1990 Amendments to the Constitution, revoked the autonomy of Vojvodina and Kosovo and practically made the cessation (from SFRY) and took over the functions of independent and sovereign state, by which it was excluded from the legal system of SFRY, which based on the SFRY laws constituted the gravest criminal offense;

- A collaborationist regime was established in Montenegro;

- A process of homogenization of Serbs, especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina was expedited;

- Slobodan Milošević received a massive support from the Serb Academy of Science and Arts, Serbian Association of Writers, Serb Orthodox Church, Yugoslav National Army (JNA as of the 90s of the 20th century did not have either Yugoslav or national character), political and cultural institutions, and unfortunately a massive support of Serbs;


Bosnia
- JNA leadership accepted Serb nationalistic ideology and policy, and became and instrument of Serb great-state project, whose task was to “protect territory with Serb population, armed them and secure borders of the future Yugoslavia”;

- The aggression against the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and genocide against Bosniacs make the essence of joint criminal enterprise conducted by the states of FRY (Serbia and Montenegro) and the Republic of Croatia, their leadership, and numerous top representatives of their respective political, military, police and administration, as well as their fifth column, collaborationists and mercenaries;

- The intention (mens rea) of that criminal act, based in the Serbian and Croatian project of great state, had for its objective taking over of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina as the state, and “final solution” for the Muslim issue – extermination of Bosniacs or their limitation to an insignificant ethnic group. The fifth column from Bosnia and Herzegovina (“Croatian Community Herzeg Bosnia”, “Republika Srpska” and “Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia”) and from the Republic of Croatia (“Republic of Serbian Krajina”) joined obediently, as associates and executors, the function of these criminal activities;

To achieve this joint criminal enterprise, the following activities were undertaken:

- the Constitutional concept of the defense of SFRY was destroyed;
- the Territorial defense of Bosnia and Herzegovina was reduced and disarmed as well as some other constitutive elements of the Federation;
- JNA was “transformed” from antifascist and multiethnic to the great Serb army;
- the great Serbian and great Croatian movements were renewed and they escalated;
- the methods, mechanisms, and procedures for planning and preparation of the crimes were defined;
- the principle agreement on the destruction of Bosnia and Herzegovina (March 1991) was reached between the heads of neighboring states (Pact Milošević Tuđman);
- new borders of great Serbia and great Croatia were drawn;
- the fifth column of the neighboring countries was organized and armed (great Serbian and great Croatian) in Bosnia and Herzegovina;
- the command in the occupied territories was united in the hands of heads of neighboring countries – occupational forces;
- the initial positions for the aggression were taken as well as for other criminal activities, including genocide against Bosniacs;

The aggression against Bosnia and Herzegovina and genocide against Bosniacs were planned (intellectually, ideologically, politically, militarily, economically, in media, intelligence, psychologically, etc), with clearly set objective, and ordered from the respective political and military centers, and executed as planned, systematically, and well organized. The state aggressors, then ideologists, planners, order issuing authorities, executors, and associates are well known, and also how these crimes were committed and why;

The Belgrade and Zagreb regimes, headed by Slobodan Milošević and Franjo Tuđman, planned, prepared, and organized the aggression against the republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and genocide against Bosniacs, managed and commanded the execution of aggression, and controlled the operation, and prepared, coordinated, guided, and through their officers conducted military operations against Bosnia and Herzegovina; ensured manpower (senior officers and soldiers), a complete logistic support (tanks, transporters, helicopters, artillery and infantry weapons, radar-computing means, ordnance, ammunition, fuel and other strategic resources; medical material; health insurance and all the other military equipment, salaries and pensions, and thus directly took part in the execution of genocide and other forms of crimes and against humanity and international law. It was only by the 31st December 1994 that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia secured 89.4% infantry, 73% artillery, and 95.1% antiaircraft ammunition for the aggression. These records were, on a timely basis, even during the court proceedings, in the hands of the International Court of Justice, but unfortunately, just like many other crucial evidence on direct participation and responsibility of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during the aggression against the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and genocide against Bosniacs, which the Court did not consider;

The armed aggression and conquering war against Bosnia and Herzegovina were the integral part of the Milošević and Tuđman state politics, in whose name was the biggest part of Bosnia and Herzegovina occupied, Bosniacs killed, expelled or taken to the concentration camps just because of their national, ethnic, or religious background and conquering of their living space;

The aggression against the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, along with embargo on weapons and humanitarian policy by the United Nations, Europe, and international community, and the international strategy of ignoring the great state fascistic and genocidal project of great Serbia, was an integral part of the Milošević state policy, in whose name the biggest portion of Bosnia and Herzegovina was occupied, Bosniacs killed, expelled, taken to the concentration camps because of their national, ethnic or religious belonging, taking over of their land, looting of the property and other moveable items, and taking and confiscation of their houses and apartments, as well as eradication of the traces of their cultural and civilization heritage;

- Serb Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the leadership of war criminal Radovan Karadžić supervised, created and guided the operation of the great-Serbian ideology, politics, and practice in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Unfortunately, surprisingly large number of Serb accepted this policy. It is even more horrifying that many antifascist Serbs from the Second World War ended their career at the end of the 20th century as fascists. “Leadership of Bosnian Serbs”, or more precisely, the leadership of Serb Democratic Party and Serb collaborationist creation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serb Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina/Republika Srpska) was involved in the joint criminal enterprise under the direct political and operative leadership of Slobodan Milošević, whose objectives and intentions were to destroy Bosniacs, a national, ethnic, and religious group as such;

- Collaborationists and the fifth column of the (great)Serbian aggressor (political, military, police, and administrative-executive potential of Republika Srpska regime) under the direct management, organization, command, participation and support of the state of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), which occupied more than 70% of the territory of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, took part in genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes against Bosniacs and war crimes against other nations;

Kako su krvnici komadali Bosnu i planirali nestanak Bošnajka

Balkans bucher: Milošević and Tuđman

Maps
War criminals deviding Bosnia
- Fascist and genocidal leadership of the para-state and collaborationist creation of Republika Srpska, with Radovan Karadžić, Momčilo Krajišnik, Biljana Plavšić and others at its top, generated by the Serbian Nazism and on bones of the killed Bosniacs inaugurated a genocidal creation called a Republic, had a genocidal intention and genocidal plan to exterminate Bosniacs that were subjected to targeted genocide;

- There was a genocidal criminal intention and genocidal plan to exterminate Bosniacs, a group (national, ethnic, and religious) protected by international humanitarian law (there are also order to commit genocide, including the formation of concentration camps);

- Genocide against Bosniacs was committed in the ambient of aggression against independent, internationally recognized state Bosnia and Herzegovina, a UN member, even through the three and half years of occupation of a large part of its state territory. The convicted war criminal Biljana Plavšić at the 17th session of the Republika Srpska Parliament, held on 24 – 26 July 1992, stated that 70% of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina was conquered. Radovan Karadžić at the 34th session of the Republika Srpska Parliament, held on 27 August – 1 October 1993, stated: “And we preserved 250,000 places of living space where Muslims used to live”. Slobodan Milošević also stated on the 15 April 1994 at the session of the Supreme Council of Defense of the Federal Republic Yugoslavia: “ … out forces control 72% territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina”;

- Genocide against Bosniacs was carried out continuously, with major or minor oscillations by the end of 1995, in accordance with the great Serbian genocidal ideology, policy, and practice, following the model of fascism and Nazism, irrespective of the number of the killed, injured, expelled, raped, or other acts. The intention to exterminate Bosniacs existed ever since the very beginning and was practically pursued throughout the aggression. Executors of the genocide, considering that their acts were tolerated by the international community, believed that they would via facti achieve the legalization of genocide as their political practice:

- The Serbian Montenegrin aggressor in the occupied territory of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, especially in the territory of the Serb strategic priorities of East and North Bosnia, as well as Bosnian Krajina carried out massive destruction of civilians, mainly Bosniacs. The biggest slaughters were in the municipalities with the Bosniac majority in Podrinje, Bosanska posavina, Potkozarje, and along the Sana valley, and the area of Sarajevo, especially part of Sarajevo under siege and other places of Bosnia and Herzegovina;

- Great Serbian aggressor and its collaborationists killed dozens, hundreds, and thousands of innocent civilians in the territory of: Trebinje, Bileća, Gacko, Ljubinje, Nevesinje, Kalinovik, Foča, Goražde, Čajniče, Rudo, Višegrad, Rogatica, Sokolac, Han-Pijesak, Srebrenica, Vlasenica, Bratunac, Zvornik, Bijeljina, Brčko, Bosanski Šamac, Doboj, Bosanski Brod, Derventa, Teslić, Maglaj, Zavidovići, Prnjavor, Kotor-Varoš, Skender-Vakuf, Banja Luka, Ključ, Bosanski Petrovac, Sanski Most, Bosanska Gradiška, Prijedor, Bosanska Dubica, Bosanski Novi, Bosanska Krupa, Kulen-Vakuf, Sarajevo, and other places, and forcibly expelled the complete population from majority of these places and eradicated the traces of their existence. Men and women were arrested, detained, expelled, deported, forcibly expelled from their homes, separated from each other and taken to camps and other place of incarceration, where many were killed, severely beaten up, tortured, physically ill-treated, while many women, girls, and young girls were systematically raped and/or subjected to other forms of sexual abuse, especially degrading from women (with the use of various tools). Mass graves and concentration camps (Omarska, Keraterm, Manjača, Sušica, Penitentiary in Foča, Batkovići, Luka-Brčko, and other) are crucial indicators of aggression and the implementation of its primary objective – biological and spiritual extermination of Bosniacs and/or genocide against this people (the oldest camp inmate – old lady Hanka Kustura, in the camp Rasadnik - Rogatica, was 101 year old, and there were also newborn babies in the camps and other places of incarceration);

- Almost all these regions, from Trebinje in southeast, via Bijeljina in northeast, Sarajevo in central Bosnia, to Bihać area in northwest make today Republika Srpska (entity within Bosnia and Herzegovina), legalized by the Dayton Peace Accord, which, as it can be seen from its very start, emerged on genocide and other crimes against humanity and intentional law;

- Genocide against Bosniacs in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the result of collective great-Serbian ideology, politics, and practice of the extermination of Bosniacs. Only in the systematic and planned genocide against Bosniacs of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the UN safe area Srebrenica in July 1995 involved (on various grounds and in various ways), according to the results of the research by the Republika Srpska Government, over 25,000 people;

- The way and tools used for killing may be defined as monstrous. Women, men, and children were killed with firearms, infantry weapons, mortars, modified bombs, knives, and specially designed tools. There is evidence that Bosniacs were burnt alive, brutally killed, even the entire families, so that the mortal remains of the entire families were found and identified in some of the mass graves;

- In the “operation of killing”, in mainly four days, with the intention and based on precisely defined pattern, more than 8,000 captured and detained Bosniacs of Bosnia and Herzegovina were executed, because they were Muslims and they lived in the territory which the great Serbian aggressor wanted to occupy and join Serbia (in the wider area of Srebrenica, from 1992 to 1995, more than 12,000 Bosniacs were killed);

- In the take over of Srebrenica, the United Nations Safe Area, and the execution of genocide against Bosniacs in July 1995, in addition to army and police forces of the collaborating, fifth column, fascist and genocidal creation of Republika Srpska, even the armed forces of Ferderal Republic Yugoslavia (Yugoslav Army and Republic of Serbia Ministry of Interior special forces) took part in it;

The great-Serbian aggressor and its collaborationists committed mass crimes in Sarajevo and other towns under siege (Goražde, Maglaj, Tuzla, Bihać, …): in water and food queues, markets, schools, universities, hospitals, trams, buses, streets, residential buildings, at work, during funerals, and so many other places, where among other things, a coordinated, widespread, long-lasting, and systemic discriminate shelling campaign against civilian areas and civilians was pursued from the artillery, mortar, and infantry weapons. The shelling and sniping activity resulted in the death of thousands of civilians, both gender and all age groups, including children, women, and the elderly. Only in besieged Sarajevo, between April 1992 and December 1995, a total number of killed and deceased according to the ICTY amounted to 18,889 individuals.[1]
On 25 May 1995, there was a massacre in Tuzla, when in shelling 71 civilian got killed (15 - 25 years old) and more than 200 injured;

- The Serbian-Montenegrin aggressor committed numerous crimes against children, as vital group of which the future generations depend. So many children got killed and injured. Only in besieged Sarajevo, around 1,600 children got killed or died of hunger and cold. After the take over of the UN safe area Srebrenica in July 1995, around 800 children got killed, who were below 18, including around 400 of those below the age of 14. Many young girls were raped and they also watched their mother being raped and tortured. The criminal killed, tortured, and raped their parents before the eyes of children. They took away their homes and childhood, and many lost one or both parents;

- The aggressor, in some places, converted Muslims by force to Eastern Christianity. There are numerous testimonies about it from people of Kalimanići, Rogatica, Bjelimići, Foča, Kozarac, Semberija and other places;

- Aggressor systematically plundered, demolished, destroyed, and eradicated the traces of around 1,200 facilities of Islamic architecture, including numerous mosques, Islamic schools, Teki, and other sacral facilities, including many of immense historic-cultural, artistic, or scientific value, which cannot be replaced. At the same time, the Serbian-Montenegrin fascists destroyed or damaged more than 500 Catholic church facilities and some Jewish;

- Aggressor systematically plundered, took over, demolished, and burnt numerous residential and business facilities. It is estimated that between 60% and 70% of the total residential units in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was damaged. Numerous infrastructure facilities (railways, roads, postal communications and TV transmitters) were damaged;

- Aggressor plundered, destroyed, and demolished numerous industrial facilities, agricultural goods, hotels, motels, and tourist centers, entrepreneur centers and privately owned shops. It is estimated that between 50% and 60% of industrial facilities were damaged;

- Great Serbian aggressor destroyed about 55% of health care facilities, including thousands of hospital beds. They killed 349 doctors and other medical professionals, mainly at work (47 only in Sarajevo). They destroyed about 400 ambulances;

- Perhaps the worst results of the aggression are demolition and destruction of almost all educational, scientific, cultural and sports facilities. It suffices to say that the aggressor shelled and burnt National and University Library in Sarajevo (collection of periodic publications with more than 30,000 titles from all the disciplines of science and life in general. Periodicals had almost half million of volumes, National Library had about 850,000 monographic publications). Aggressor burnt the Oriental Institute, including archive and library, and it destroyed almost all the facilities from the time of XIV Winter Olympic Games 1984, and several century old Jewish cemetery was turned into the nest for killing civilians under siege in Sarajevo;

- Aggressor disabled or cut off water supply installations, electricity installations, gas, and telephone installations, in towns under siege, especially in Sarajevo. In this way, the aggressor subjected civilians to harsh conditions that were supposed to result in their destruction, full or in part;

- Serbian-Montenegrin aggressor and its collaborationists did not abide by any war conventions, and they used methods forbidden by all international and humanitarian laws and standards. The aggressor used fragmentation and incendiary ammunition against civilians, residential and industrial facilities and hospitals, and it also used chemical poisons, cluster bombs, sniper, etc. All the artillery pieces were used against towns, settlements, and villages with predominant Bosniac population;

- Aggressor systematically starved the population, especially in Sarajevo, and prevented their medical treatment and epidemiological protection, prevented UNHCR and other international and local organizations from delivering supplies. Also, in occupied places with a smaller number of Bosniacs and Croats, the aggressor would fire them from their jobs, evict from their apartments, and force them first to sign that they give up their property, and it deprived them from welfare and medical care;

- During the aggression against the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, aggressor particularly used siege as a way of warfare and indiscriminate and disproportional force, which is characteristic for Sarajevo, Goražde, Žepa, Srebrenica, Bihać and other places under siege;

- The armed forces of the Republic of Croatia (Croatian Army – HV, and its collaborationists and fifth column – Croatian Defense Council - HVO, who acted under the overall control of the Republic of Croatia and for its interests, as both de facto and de iure instrument of the Republic of Croatia, which pursued the overall control over HVO, whereby even the crimes of HVO are credited to Republic of Croatia) committed numerous crimes against Bosniac civilians in the valley of rivers Rama and Neretva, and in central Bosnia, such as massive slaughters, which included also women and children, forcible transfer and relocation of population, arrests and detention of civilians in concentration camps and other places of incarceration, rapes, attacks against towns, destruction of villages, religious and other civilian facilities. That was, in accordance with the Tuđman nationalistic program related to the establishment of “common Croat state within its ethnic and historic borders”, a part of intentional and systemic policy and practice of genocide, committed in an organized manner by the HV and HVO in those places and areas;

Such genocidal politics was pursued in the municipalities of: Stolac, Čapljina, Mostar, Jablanica, Prozor, Gornji Vakuf, Bugojno, Kiseljak, Busovača, Usora, Žepče, Vitez, Travnik, and Vareš. The most apparent example of mass crimes are slaughters in Ahmići and Stupni Do, where many civilians, including women and children were killed or burnt alive, while the houses were set on fire by incendiary bullets, grenades or gasoline. In that occupied territory, the Republic of Croatia “had a role of an occupational force, due to the general control which it had over the HVO, support it provided, and the close relations which it maintained”. Due to the “general control which Croatia pursued over HVO, the property of Bosnian Muslims, at the moment of destruction, was under the control of Croatia and it was under the occupied territory”; [2]


- the armed formations of Fikret Abdić, who placed himself at service of the aggressor, committed numerous crimes against civilians and POWs, especially members of the 5th Corps of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia ands Herzegovina such as: murders, injuring, maltreatment, physical and mental abuse, beating, especially in camps, then rapes, plundering and destruction (indiscriminate shelling) of residential and other civilian facilities;

- even some Bosniacs, during the defense of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina from the aggression and biological extermination, committed some war crimes against Serbs and Croats, which obligates the BiH institutions to prosecute those crimes as well. The energetic actions against a certain number of individuals and their prosecution were undertaken even during the aggression and genocide;

- the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, internationally recognized state and UN member state, during the aggression and genocide, suffered huge human losses and material destruction. Total number of killed, forcibly transferred, injured, and victims of other crimes against humanity and international law in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina has not been scientifically concluded. Based on available results of various studies and research, the number of killed ranges between 25,000 and 328,000.

In addition to the mass and individual murders, numerous other forms of crimes against humanity and international law were committed, such as:

- several hundreds of thousands of the injured, of which several tens of thousands of children;
- several hundreds of thousands of the incarcerated in over 650 concentration camps and other places of incarceration;
- several tens of thousands of rapes and sexually abused girls and women, even men;
- more than 2,200,000 persons (1,170,000 refugees and 1,030,000 displaced persons) were expelled from their homes, who were in panic and fear, and this is more than one half of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina population according to the March 1991 census;
- 1,370,000 persons are with severe psychological injuries;
- the Great Serbian aggressor, in towns under siege and UN safe areas and other settlements near the frontline, imposed such living conditions that targeted the destruction in full or in part of a targeted group;
- several dozens of thousands died as the result of aggression and genocide and due to the increase in the mortality rate;
- significant decrease of birth rate, related to the reduction in births, caused by severe conditions of aggression and genocide;
- 440,000 refugees have never returned to the country even after 16 years since the war.

Systemic pattern in forcible takeover of powers; perpetrated crimes; extent and pattern of attack; intensity; a large number of killed Bosniacs; expelling, deportation, and brutal treatment of them in the concentration camps and other places of incarceration, and targeting individuals relevant for their survival as a group (prominent, intellectual, political, spiritual, and rich Bosniacs) are clear evidence of intention and committed genocide against Bosniacs. Unfortunately, Bosnian Muslims were partly exterminated at the end of the 20th century. In many regions, where they used to live for centuries, they do not live any longer. They are only symbolically present, they vegetate biologically, but they do not constitute any social or political factor, and they are only a statistical number.

- Genocide against Bosniacs is still concealed, minimized, relativized, contested, denied, including Judgments by the international (ICTY and ICJ) and national (Federal Republic of Germany and Bosnia and Herzegovina) criminal courts, as well as results of the Commission for the Research of the Events in and around Srebrenica from 10 to 19 July 1995 by the Republika Srpska Government and the Working Group for the Implementation of Conclusions from the Final Report of the Commission for the Research of Events in and around Srebrenica from 10 to 19 July 1995;

- The victims of genocide and the perpetrators (criminals) have been permanently and continuously equalized, which is unacceptable (it has been talked more and more about crimes on all “sides”, by which genocide and other forms of crimes against humanity and international law are reduced to war crimes only, which, least to say, insults the scholars of these crimes, particularly the victims of genocide), and the qualification is given to this important issue, judgmentally and in a wrong way, such as the character of crime, which finally does not correspond the state of facts and it is in contravention of the relevant documentation;

- We are witnesses, unfortunately, of frequent manipulation of the victims of genocide in Bosnian and Herzegovina at the end of the 20th century, particularly their number and status (instead of civilian and combatant, the terms civilian and soldier are used), whereby particularly active are the pseudo scholars. The holders of the manipulation are different and versatile, individuals, groups, various associations, institutions, and others, whose interests and objectives are very different and difficult to be articulated, detected, identified, established, and formulated in a unique manner. We have identified them as not well intentioned, counterproductive, and with hidden agenda, with potentially long-lasting harmful implications for Bosnia and Herzegovina as the state and all of its citizens, irrespective of their national, religious, or political background. The basis for this qualification stems from the fact that the so-called studies have not been organized or executed on a scientific ground or scientifically defined procedure, by which the process is defined – from the research idea to the establishment of the results of a scientific research and their potential application in a scientific and social practice. It is well known that there is only one truth, and the objective of science is a scientific truth, reachable only by the application of scientific methods;

- The criminal prosecution of genocide and other forms of crimes against humanity and international law before the courts in Bosnia and Herzegovina has been continuously obstructed, least to say, whereby we have the forces on the stage which, instead of gravity of the crimes, character, status and number of victims, choose cases based on the ethnic background of the victims, for the purpose of making balance among the crimes committed against three peoples (Bosniacs, Serbs, and Croats) and the pronouncement of the victim of genocide – criminal; moreover, they want to change, through the procedure, the character of “conflict” and the character of crimes in Bosnia and Herzegovina, so that the international armed conflict, that is, the aggression, could be qualified as a civil war and the crime of genocide as “ethnic cleansing”;

- The planners, order issuing authorities, participants, accessories, co-perpetrators, and perpetrators of genocide are in the great Serbian ideology, politics and practice the biggest heroes in the Serbian people (in science, culture, art, education), who live unpunished and enjoy, unfortunately, in the results of genocide while mocking with the victims of those crimes;

- The Serbian people and its political and scientific elite have not distanced from the committed genocide, let alone that they apologized to victims or asked for the forgiveness offering the hand of reconciliation. Instead, they keep denying genocide and they transfer responsibility to the victim of genocide, and fabricate and forge the historic facts such as, for example, “thesis” that the legitimate authorities of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina expelled Serbs from Sarajevo, including “more than 650 University professors and assistants”;

- Entity Republika Srpska is a genocidal creation of the great Serbian Nazism, that is, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia /Serbia and Montenegro/ (Republika Srpska is the legacy of genocide – it is national-socialist genocidal creation created on grave violations of international humanitarian law, marked and soaked mainly in Bosniac blood and bordered and covered with numerous mass graves and concentration camps, in which fascistic organization legally operate. Political leadership and other structures of Republika Srpska, in accordance with great Serbian genocidal ideology, policy, and practice, forge historic facts and deny genocide against Bosniacs, and obstruct in all possible ways the strengthening of Bosnia and Herzegovina as the state, and they keep pursuing the policy of cessation, destruction, and annulling of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina;

- Dayton Agreement legalized great Serbian Nazi ideology, politics, and practice of genocidal character. Moreover, it changed the name of the internationally recognized state (Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina), excluding from its name the word Republic, crediting it to the criminals as a reward for genocide. The forces which took part in the aggression and genocide were not removed from the structures of the entity Republika Srpska, including the genocide against Bosniacs in and around UN safe area – Srebrenica in July 1995, what was confirmed by the results of the research of the Republika Srpska Government, unlike Germany which removed the Nazi elements from its administration after the WWII, so that these forces are still politically active and they openly destroy the state Bosnia and Herzegovina.

These are only the most basic facts, deeply engraved in the mind of all the survivors of genocide and other forms of crimes against humanity and international law, and they constitute part of social reality, and as such they by all means try to maintain (live and legal) the great state projects of fascist and genocidal character that finally imply permanent instability of Bosnia and Herzegovina, deny the political-legal and state continuity, sovereignty and independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina, deny the possibility of common living and the improvement of quality of common living, which among other things very seriously undermine the universal human values, freedoms and rights, civilization, and cultural legacy.




* The presentation is based on the most relevant, scientific and theoretical sources of knowledge and important results of empiric scientific researches.
ICTY, Demographic department, ICTY OTP, Case Milošević (IT-02-54), E. Tabeau, J. Bijak and N. Lončarić, Number of victims in the siege of Sarajevo from April 1992 – December 1995, Study on the mortality rate based on eight sources of information, The Hague, 18 August 2003; ICTY, Case Galić (IT-98-29), E. Tabeau, M. Zoltkowski and J. Bijak, Human losses during the ‘siege’ of Sarajevo from 10 September 1992 to 10 August 1995, Report on the research prepared for the case STANISLAV GALIĆ (IT-98-29-1), The Hague, 10 May 2002; ICTY, PROSECUTOR V. STANISLAV GALIĆ, JUDGMENT AND OPINION, The Hague, 5 December 2003.
ICTY, TRIAL CHAMBER, PROSECUTOR V. TIHOMIR BLAŠKIĆ, JUDGMENT, 3 March 2000, Para 149.
See more: S. Čekić, ISTRAŽIVANJE ŽRTAVA GENOCIDA SA POSEBNIM OSVRTOM NA BOSNU I HERCEGOVINU: Naučno-teorijska i metodološko-metodska pitanja i problemi, Sarajevo, 2007. Studija je 2009. objavljena i na engleskom jeziku (RESEARCH OF GENOCIDE VICTIMS, WITH A SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: Problems and Issues in Scientific Theory, Methods and Methodology).



Footnote:
1] ICTY, Demographic department, ICTY OTP, Case Milošević (IT-02-54), E. Tabeau, J. Bijak and N. Lončarić, Number of victims in the siege of Sarajevo from April 1992 – December 1995, Study on the mortality rate based on eight sources of information, The Hague, 18 August 2003; ICTY, Case Galić (IT-98-29), E. Tabeau, M. Zoltkowski and J. Bijak, Human losses during the ‘siege’ of Sarajevo from 10 September 1992 to 10 August 1995, Report on the research prepared for the case STANISLAV GALIĆ (IT-98-29-1), The Hague, 10 May 2002; ICTY, PROSECUTOR V. STANISLAV GALIĆ, JUDGMENT AND OPINION, The Hague, 5 December 2003.
2] ICTY, TRIAL CHAMBER, PROSECUTOR V. TIHOMIR BLAŠKIĆ, JUDGMENT, 3 March 2000, Para 149.



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